Pamguard: Semiautomated, open source software for real-time acoustic detection and localisation of cetaceans

Regulators in many regions require mitigation involving the real-time detection of marine mammals during activities emitting intense sound, such as seismic surveys, pile driving and military sonar exercises. Visual monitoring is the default method for detecting marine mammals. However, these animals are difficult to sight. Some make long dives and hence are unavailable to be seen at the surface for extended periods and sighting efficiency is also dramatically reduced by poor weather conditions. Visual detection is, of course, extremely limited at night, yet for economic reasons, operators may need to continue activities round-the-clock. Another consideration is that maintaining high levels of vigilance is demanding on observers. During visual surveys for example, teams of six or more observers will be used to provide effective coverage.